Nuclear energy might have a lot of unused potential. Not only is it one of the best mid term solutions for global warming bit despite what gut feeling tells us, it has saved millions of lives. By investing more into better technologies we might be able to make nuclear energy finally save and clean forever. The video "3 Reasons Why Nuclear Energy Is Awesome! 3/3" is a resource included in the Physics topic made available from the Kurzgesagt open educational resource series.
Nuclear energy might be a failed experiment. In over sixty years the technology has not only failed to keep its promise of cheap, clean and safe energy, it also caused major catastrophes and enabled more nuclear weapons while the nuclear waste problem is still not solved. The video "3 Reasons Why Nuclear Energy Is Terrible! 2/3" is a resource included in the Physics topic made available from the Kurzgesagt open educational resource series.
The video resource "AC Circuits: Crash Course Physics #36" is included in the "Media Literacy" course from the resources series of "Crash Course". Crash Course is a educational video series from John and Hank Green.
At this point in the unit, students have learned about Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle, Bernoulli's principle, and why above-ground storage tanks are of major concern in the Houston Ship Channel and other coastal areas. In this culminating activity, student groups act as engineering design teams to derive equations to determine the stability of specific above-ground storage tank scenarios with given tank specifications and liquid contents. With their floatation analyses completed and the stability determined, students analyze the tank stability in specific storm conditions. Then, teams are challenged to come up with improved storage tank designs to make them less vulnerable to uplift, displacement and buckling in storm conditions. Teams present their analyses and design ideas in short class presentations.
Students work as physicists to understand centripetal acceleration concepts. They also learn about a good robot design and the accelerometer sensor. They also learn about the relationship between centripetal acceleration and centripetal force governed by the radius between the motor and accelerometer and the amount of mass at the end of the robot's arm. Students graph and analyze data collected from an accelerometer, and learn to design robots with proper weight distribution across the robot for their robotic arms. Upon using a data logging program, they view their own data collected during the activity. By activity end , students understand how a change in radius or mass can affect the data obtained from the accelerometer through the plots generated from the data logging program. More specifically, students learn about the accuracy and precision of the accelerometer measurements from numerous trials.
Students construct rockets from balloons propelled along a guide string. They use this model to learn about Newton's three laws of motion, examining the effect of different forces on the motion of the rocket.
This course will focus for a large part on MOSFET and CMOS, but also on heterojunction BJT, and photonic devices.First non-ideal characteristics of MOSFETs will be discussed, like channel-length modulation and short-channel effects. We will also pay attention to threshold voltage modification by varying the dopant concentration. Further, MOS scaling will be discussed. A combination of an n-channel and p-channel MOSFET is used for CMOS devices that form the basis for current digital technology. The operation of a CMOS inverter will be explained. We will explain in more detail how the transfer characteristics relate to the CMOS design.
This course is about the electronic properties of materials and contains lectures about scattering, transport in metals, phonons and superconductivity.
In this lesson, students learn about work as defined by physical science and see that work is made easier through the use of simple machines. Already encountering simple machines everyday, students will be alerted to their widespread uses in everyday life. This lesson serves as the starting point for the Simple Machines Unit.
In this video, we explore some concepts fundamental to algebra. To streamline the discussion of relationships between physical quantities, we introduce variables, functions, composition, and inverse. By thinking about the concept of an inverse function, we obtain our first glimpse of the imaginary root (i.e. square-root of -1) and the complex plane.
The lesson begins with a demonstration introducing students to the force between two current carrying loops, comparing the attraction and repulsion between the loops to that between two magnets. After formal lecture on Ampere's law, students begin to use the concepts to calculate the magnetic field around a loop. This is applied to determine the magnetic field of a toroid, imagining a toroid as a looped solenoid.
The video resource "AmpÃƒÂ¨re's Law: Crash Course Physics #33" is included in the "Media Literacy" course from the resources series of "Crash Course". Crash Course is a educational video series from John and Hank Green.
Students prepare for the associated activity in which they investigate acceleration by collecting acceleration vs. time data using the accelerometer of a sliding Android device. Based on the experimental set-up for the activity, students form hypotheses about the acceleration of the device. Students will investigate how the force on the device changes according to Newton's Second Law. Different types of acceleration, including average, instantaneous and constant acceleration, are introduced. Acceleration and force is described mathematically and in terms of processes and applications.
Students investigate the motion of a simple pendulum through direct observation and data collection using Android® devices. First, student groups create pendulums that hang from the classroom ceiling, using Android smartphones or tablets as the bobs, taking advantage of their built-in accelerometers. With the Android devices loaded with the (provided) AccelDataCapture app, groups explore the periodic motion of the pendulums, changing variables (amplitude, mass, length) to see what happens, by visual observation and via the app-generated graphs. Then teams conduct formal experiments to alter one variable while keeping all other parameters constant, performing numerous trials, identifying independent/dependent variables, collecting data and using the simple pendulum equation. Through these experiments, students investigate how pendulums move and the changing forces they experience, better understanding the relationship between a pendulum's motion and its amplitude, length and mass. They analyze the data, either on paper or by importing into a spreadsheet application. As an extension, students may also develop their own algorithms in a provided App Inventor framework in order to automatically note the time of each period.
Paul Andersen explains rotating object have angular momentum. The angular momentum of a point object is the product of the distant from the center of rotation and the linear momentum. The angular momentum of an extended object is a product of the rotational inertia and the angular velocity.
Paul Andersen explains that the angular momentum of a system will be conserved as long as there is no net external torque. Both point objects and extended objects are covered along with several examples.
Paul Andersen explains how the angular momentum of a system can be calculated by determining the angular momentum of all individual objects within the system. An inquiry activity using a gyroscope is also included.
Antimatter, the charge reversed equivalent of matter, has captured the imaginations of science fiction fans for years as a perfectly efficient form of energy. While normal matter consists of atoms with negatively charged electrons orbiting positively charged nuclei, antimatter consists of positively charged positrons orbiting negatively charged anti-nuclei. When antimatter and matter meet, both substances are annihilated, creating massive amounts of energy. Instances in which antimatter is portrayed in science fiction stories (such as Star Trek) are examined, including their purposes (fuel source, weapons, alternate universes) and properties. Students compare and contrast matter and antimatter, learn how antimatter can be used as a form of energy, and consider potential engineering applications for antimatter.
Students are introduced to Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle. Fundamental definitions, equations, practice problems and engineering applications are supplied. A PowerPoint® presentation, practice problems and grading rubric are provided.
The video resource "Astrophysics and Cosmology: Crash Course Physics #46" is included in the "Statistics" course from the resources series of "Crash Course". Crash Course is a educational video series from John and Hank Green.
The resource "Atom Properties" is included in the Physics Fundamentals topic of the EICC Engineering Techology Simulations resource series. This series is segment of a Department of Labor grant awarded to the Eastern Iowa Community Colleges (EICC) of Clinton, Muscatine, and Scott.
Paul Andersen explains how the structure of the nucleus influences the properties of the atom. The number of the protons determines the kind of element. Isotopes are formed when the number of protons remain the same but the neutrons are different. Some isotopes are radioactive and may decay over time. The rate of decay is the half-life and can be used to measure decay or time.
Neutron Stars are some of the strangest things in the Universe. Not quite massive enough to become black holes they are basically atoms as big as mountains with properties so extreme it's mind-blowing. And if you get too close to a neutron star you are in big trouble. The video "Atoms As Big As Mountains -Neutron Stars Explained" is a resource included in the Physics topic made available from the Kurzgesagt open educational resource series.
The resource "Atoms, Electrons, Photons, and Light" is included in the Physics Fundamentals topic of the EICC Engineering Techology Simulations resource series. This series is segment of a Department of Labor grant awarded to the Eastern Iowa Community Colleges (EICC) of Clinton, Muscatine, and Scott.
Paul Andersen explains how the average value of the electric field can be determined by dividing the potential difference by the displacement. Equipotential lines can be used to determine the potential in an electric field and the displacement can be measured.
College Physics is organized such that topics are introduced conceptually with a steady progression to precise definitions and analytical applications. The analytical aspect (problem solving) is tied back to the conceptual before moving on to another topic. Each introductory chapter, for example, opens with an engaging photograph relevant to the subject of the chapter and interesting applications that are easy for most students to visualize.
Students follow the steps of the engineering design process as they design and construct balloons for aerial surveillance. After their first attempts to create balloons, they are given the associated Estimating Buoyancy lesson to learn about volume, buoyancy and density to help them iterate more successful balloon designs.Applying their newfound knowledge, the young engineers build and test balloons that fly carrying small flip cameras that capture aerial images of their school. Students use the aerial footage to draw maps and estimate areas.
In the master-equation formalism, a set of differential equations describe the time-evolution of the probability distribution of an ensemble of systems. This can be used, for example, to describe the varied mRNA copy numbers found in individual cells in a population.
The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Kinetic Monte Carlo, Gillespie algorithm) produces an example trajectory for a particular member of a probabilistic ensemble by looping over the following steps. The current state of the system is used to determine the likelihood of each possible chemical reaction in relative comparison to the likelihoods for the other possible reactions, as well as to determine when the next reaction is expected. Pseudo-random numbers are drawn to "roll the dice" to determine exactly when the next reaction will proceed, and which kind of reaction it will happen to be.
Paul Andersen explains how beats are created through interference of waves with similar frequencies. The changes in amplitude are caused by destructive and constructive interference. The frequency of beats is equal to the difference in frequency of the two waves.
How did everything get started? Has the universe a beginning or was it here since forever? Well, evidence suggests that there was indeed a starting point to this universe we are part of right now. But how can this be? How can something come from nothing? And what about time? We don't have all the answers yet so let's talk about what we know. The video "The Beginning of Everything - The Big Bang" is a resource included in the Physics topic made available from the Kurzgesagt open educational resource series.
Paul Andersen explains how Bernoulli's Equation describes the conservation of energy in a fluid. The equation describes the pressure energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy of a fluid at a single point. A sample problem illustrating the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure energy decreases.
Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.
This lesson begins with a demonstration prompting students to consider how current generates a magnetic field and the direction of the field that is generated. Through formal lecture, students learn Biot-Savart's law in order to calculate, most simply, the magnetic field produced in the center of a circular current carrying loop. For applications, students find it is necessary to integrate the field produced over all small segments in an actual current carrying wire.
Students make a skydiver and parachute contraption to demonstrate how drag caused by air resistance slows the descent of skydivers as they travel back to Earth. Gravity pulls the skydiver toward the Earth, while the air trapped by the parachute provides an upward resisting force (drag) on the skydiver.
Students learn how engineers gather data and model motion using vectors. They learn about using motion-tracking tools to observe, record, and analyze vectors associated with the motion of their own bodies. They do this qualitatively and quantitatively by analyzing several examples of their own body motion. As a final presentation, student teams act as engineering consultants and propose the use of (free) ARK Mirror technology to help sports teams evaluate body mechanics. A pre/post quiz is provided.
Body Physics was designed to meet the objectives of a one-term high school or freshman level course in physical science, typically designed to provide non-science majors and undeclared students with exposure to the most basic principles in physics while fulfilling a science-with-lab core requirement. The content level is aimed at students taking their first college science course, whether or not they are planning to major in science. However, with minor supplementation by other resources, such as OpenStax College Physics, this textbook could easily be used as the primary resource in 200-level introductory courses. Chapters that may be more appropriate for physics courses than for general science courses are noted with an asterisk symbol (*). Of course, this textbook could be used to supplement other primary resources in any physics course covering mechanics and thermodynamics.
In this video Paul Andersen describes the major parts of an atom and explains how the Bohr Model more accurately represents the location of electrons around the nucleus. Niels Bohr refined the Rutherford model to account for spectra.
Students are introduced to the challenge question, which revolves around proving that a cabinet x-ray system can produce bone mineral density images. Students work independently to generate ideas from the questions provided, then share with partners and then with the class as part of the Multiple Perspectives phase of this unit. Then, as part of the associated activity, students explore multiple websites to gather information about bone mineral density and answer worksheet questions, followed by a quiz on the material covered in the articles.
Students revisit the mathematics required to find bone mineral density, to which they were introduced in lesson 2 of this unit. They learn the equation to find intensity, Beer's law, and how to use it. Then they complete a sheet of practice problems that use the equation.
Students examine an image produced by a cabinet x-ray system to determine if it is a quality bone mineral density image. They write in their journals about what they need to know to be able to make this judgment. Students learn about what bone mineral density is, how a BMD image can be obtained, and how it is related to the x-ray field. Students examine the process used to obtain a BMD image and how this process is related to mathematics, primarily through logarithmic functions. They study the relationship between logarithms and exponents, the properties of logarithms, common and natural logarithms, solving exponential equations and Beer's law.
Students examine how different balls react when colliding with different surfaces, giving plenty of opportunity for them to see the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions, learn how to calculate momentum, and understand the principle of conservation of momentum.
In this activity, students examine how different balls react when colliding with different surfaces. Also, they will have plenty of opportunity to learn how to calculate momentum and understand the principle of conservation of momentum.
Students work in groups to create soap bubbles on a smooth surface, recording their observations from which they formulate theories to explain what they see (color swirls on the bubble surfaces caused by refraction). Then they apply this theory to thin films in general, including porous films used in biosensors, listing factors that could change the color(s) that become visible to the naked eye, and learn how those factors can be manipulated to give information on gene detection. Finally (by experimentation or video), students see what happens when water is dropped onto the surface of a Bragg mirror.
Whether you want to light up a front step or a bathroom, it helps to have a light come on automatically when darkness falls. For this maker challenge, students create their own night-lights using Arduino microcontrollers, photocells and (supplied) code to sense light levels and turn on/off LEDs as they specify. As they build, test, and control these night-lights, they learn about voltage divider circuits and then experience the fundamental power of microcontrollers—controlling outputs (LEDs) based on sensor (photocell) input readings and if/then/else commands. Then they are challenged to personalize (and complicate) their night-lights—such as by using delays to change the LED blinking rate to reflect the amount of ambient light, or use many LEDs and several if/else statements with ranges to create a light meter. The possibilities are unlimited!
Students are challenged to design their own small-sized prototype light sculptures to light up a hypothetical courtyard. To accomplish this, they use Arduino microcontrollers as the “brains” of the projects and control light displays composed of numerous (3+) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With this challenge, students further their learning of Arduino fundamentals by exploring one important microcontroller capability—the control of external circuits. The Arduino microcontroller is a powerful yet easy-to-learn platform for learning computer programing and electronics. LEDs provide immediate visual success/failure feedback, and the unlimited variety of possible results are dazzling!
Students build their own small-scale model roller coasters using pipe insulation and marbles, and then analyze them using physics principles learned in the associated lesson. They examine conversions between kinetic and potential energy and frictional effects to design roller coasters that are completely driven by gravity. A class competition using different marbles types to represent different passenger loads determines the most innovative and successful roller coasters.
Students create and decorate their own spectrographs using simple materials and holographic diffraction gratings. A holographic diffraction grating acts like a prism, showing the visual components of light. After building the spectrographs, students observe the spectra of different light sources as homework.
Students design and construct electromagnets that must pick up 10 staples. They begin with only minimal guidance, and after the basic concept is understood, are informed of the properties that affect the strength of that magnet. They conclude by designing their own electromagnets to complete the challenge of separating scrap steel from scrap aluminum for recycling, and share it with the class.
Students conduct a simple experiment to see how the water level changes in a beaker when a lump of clay sinks in the water and when the same lump of clay is shaped into a bowl that floats in the water. They notice that the floating clay displaces more water than the sinking clay does, perhaps a surprising result. Then they determine the mass of water that is displaced when the clay floats in the water. A comparison of this mass to the mass of the clay itself reveals that they are approximately the same.
Paul Andersen explains how you can use Coulomb's Law to determine the electric force between two charges. In Physics 1 students should be able to calculate the force between two charges and in Physics 2 students should be able to determine the force between up to four different charges.
Paul Andersen explains why astronauts are weightless. He also explains how Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation can be used to calculate the gravitational force between objects.
Students apply their knowledge of linear regression and design to solve a real-world challenge to create a better packing solution for shipping cell phones. They use different materials, such as cardboard, fabric, plastic, and rubber bands to create new “composite material” packaging containers. Teams each create four prototypes made of the same materials and constructed in the same way, with the only difference being their weights, so each one is fabricated with a different amount of material. They test the three heavier prototype packages by dropping them from different heights to see how well they protect a piece of glass inside (similar in size to iPhone 6). Then students use linear regression to predict from what height they can drop the fourth/final prototype of known mass without the “phone” breaking. Success is not breaking the glass but not underestimating the height by too much either, which means using math to accurately predict the optimum drop height.
This lab demonstrates Ohm's law as students set up simple circuits each composed of a battery, lamp and resistor. Students calculate the current flowing through the circuits they create by solving linear equations. After solving for the current, I, for each set resistance value, students plot the three points on a Cartesian plane and note the line that is formed. They also see the direct correlation between the amount of current flowing through the lamp and its brightness.
This lesson introduces students to the concept of air pressure. Students will explore how air pressure creates force on an object. They will study the relationship between air pressure and the velocity of moving air.
The video resource "Capacitors and Kirchhoff: Crash Course Physics #31" is included in the "Media Literacy" course from the resources series of "Crash Course". Crash Course is a educational video series from John and Hank Green.
Students are presented with a short lesson on the difference between cohesive forces (the forces that hold water molecules together and create surface tension) and adhesive forces (the forces that causes water to "stick" to solid surfaces. The interaction between cohesive forces and adhesive forces causes the well-known capillary action. Students are also introduced to examples of capillary action found in nature and in our day-to-day lives.
Students observe Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and the ideal gas law as a Cartesian diver moves within a closed system. The Cartesian diver is neutrally buoyant and begins to sink when an external pressure is applied to the closed system. A basic explanation and proof of this process is provided in this activity, and supplementary ideas for more extensive demonstrations and independent group activities are presented.
Students observe the relationship between the angle of a catapult (a force measurement) and the flight of a cotton ball. They learn how Newton's second law of motion works by seeing directly that F = ma. When they pull the metal "arm" back further, thus applying a greater force to the cotton ball, it causes the cotton ball to travel faster and farther. Students also learn that objects of greater mass require more force to result in the same distance traveled by a lighter object.
Paul Andersen explains how the center of mass of an object represents the average position of matter in an object. The center of mass of a system is a combination of all the objects within the system. As long as no external torque is applied to the system the center of mass will be conserved.
This lesson begins with an activity in which students induce EMF in a coil of wire using magnetic fields. Then, demonstrations on Eddy currents show how a magnetic field can slow magnets just as Eddy currents are used to slow large trains. There is then a demonstration in which a loop "jumps" because of a changing magnetic field. Finally, formal lecture reviews the cross product with respect to magnetic force and introduces magnetic flux, Faraday's law of Induction, Lenz's Law, Eddy currents, motional EMF and Induced EMF.
Student groups are given captioned photographs of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant facility and surrounding towns taken before and 28 years after the 1986 disaster. Based on the captions and clues in the images, they arrange them in sequential order. While viewing the completed sequence of images, students reflect on what it might have been like to be there, and ask themselves: what were people thinking, doing and saying at each point? This activity assists students in gaining an understanding of how devastating nuclear meltdowns can be, which underscores the importance of responsible engineering. It is recommended that this activity be conducted before the associated lesson, Nuclear Energy through a Virtual Field Trip.
The video resource "Circuit Analysis: Crash Course Physics #30" is included in the "Media Literacy" course from the resources series of "Crash Course". Crash Course is a educational video series from John and Hank Green.