Paul Andersen details the first 7 of 13 labs in the AP Biology Curriculum. The following topics are all covered: Artificial Selection, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, Comparing DNA using BLAST, Diffusion and Osmosis, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Mitosis and Meiosis.
Paul Andersen explains the final 6 of 13 AP Biology Labs. The following topics are included: Transformation, Restriction Analysis of DNA, Energy Dynamics, Transpiration, Animal Behavior, and Enzyme Activity.
Mr. Andersen describes the two portions of the AP Biology Test. Tips for answering multiple choice and free response questions are included. Sample questions from old AP tests are also included.
Paul Andersen explains the structure, function and importance of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). He begins by describing the specific structure of the molecule and its three main parts: adenine, ribose sugar, and phosphate groups. He explains how energy can be stored in ATP and released through hydrolysis to ADP and Pi.
Abiogenesis Paul Andersen describes how life could have formed on our planet through natural processes. The progression from monomers, to polymers, to protocells and finally to cells is described. The Miller-Urey experiment is described in detail as well as characteristics of the latest universal ancestor
Paul Andersen explains how acid-base chemistry can be understood in terms of equilibrium. Water is present in all acid-base chemistry and is amphoteric in nature. The Ka and Kb values can be used to determine the strength of an acid or a base. Titrations can be used to student neutralization reactions between strong and weak acids and bases.
Paul Andersen explains pH as the power of hydrogen. He explains how increases in the hydronium ion (or hydrogen ion) concentration can lower the pH and create acids. He also explains how the reverse is true. An analysis of a strong acid and strong base is also included.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the activation energy is a measure of the amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to occur. Due to the collision theory the activation energy requires proper energy and orientation of the colliding molecules.
Paul Andersen explains important concepts that can not be explained by simple Mendelian genetics. He begins with a discussion of polygenic inheritance and uses a simulation on height to show how a bell shape curve of phenotypes is produced.
Paul Andersen explains the process of anaerobic respiration. This process involves glycolysis and fermentation and allows organisms to survive without oxygen. Lactic acid fermentation is used in animals and bacteria and uses lactate as an electron acceptor. Alcoholic fermentation used ethyl alcohol as an electron acceptor.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how scientists analyze data and evaluate evidence. He starts with a description of data and how it must be properly displayed. He then describes types of data in each of the four big ideas. He finally discusses a number of practice questions related to data analysis.
Paul Andersen introduces Anatomy and Physiology in this podcast. He starts by describing how the form of an object fits the function. He then explains the themes of homeostasis and hierarchy. He describes the four major types of tissues; epithelial, muscle, nervous and connective.
Paul Andersen explains rotating object have angular momentum. The angular momentum of a point object is the product of the distant from the center of rotation and the linear momentum. The angular momentum of an extended object is a product of the rotational inertia and the angular velocity.
Paul Andersen explains that the angular momentum of a system will be conserved as long as there is no net external torque. Both point objects and extended objects are covered along with several examples.
Paul Andersen explains how the angular momentum of a system can be calculated by determining the angular momentum of all individual objects within the system. An inquiry activity using a gyroscope is also included.
Paul Andersen steps you through eight types of animal behavior. He starts by defining ethology and explaining that behavior varies from innate to learned. He discusses each of the following with examples; instinct, fixed action pattern, imprinting, associative learning, trial and error learning, habituation, observational learning and insight.
Paul Andersen introduces the concept of ethology and contrasts kinesis and taxis. He explains the importance of courtship rituals in fruit flies. He finally shows you how to use a choice chamber to study behavior in pill bugs.
Paul Andersen briefly surveys members of the Domain Animalia. He begins with brief description of the phylogeny of animals. He then describes the characteristics of all animals, heterotrophy, multicellularity, motility and blastula. He describes eight invertebrates and vertebrates.
Paul Andersen explains how aposematic coloration (or warning coloration) is used for protection in the natural world. He explains how bright colors can be caused by either sexual selection or a warning coloration to predators. He also explains how organisms can use this coloration to mimic other organisms with a similar pattern.
Archaea In this video Paul Andersen describes the defining characteristics of members in the domain archaebacteria. He starts with a brief description of the phylogeny of this group. He then describes the major characteristics on an archaea, such as differences in the phospholipids.
Paul Andersen explains how the atmosphere surrounds the planet. The state of the atmosphere is climate and is affected by unequal heating, the Coriolis Effect, and the ocean. Convection cells and ENSO are discussed in detail.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the atomic model has changed over time. A model is simply a theoretical construct of phenomenon and so when we receive new data we may have to refine our model. Ionization energy data resulted in the formation of a quantum model that more accurately reflected the atom.
Paul Andersen explains how the structure of the nucleus influences the properties of the atom. The number of the protons determines the kind of element. Isotopes are formed when the number of protons remain the same but the neutrons are different. Some isotopes are radioactive and may decay over time. The rate of decay is the half-life and can be used to measure decay or time.
Paul Andersen explains how the average value of the electric field can be determined by dividing the potential difference by the displacement. Equipotential lines can be used to determine the potential in an electric field and the displacement can be measured.
Life oPaul Andersen describes the defining characteristics of the domain Eubacteria. He begins with a quick description of the phylogeny of bacteria and horizontal gene transfer. He then surveys the structures of a bacteria; nucleoid region, capsule, pilli, cell wall with peptidoglycan, flagella.
Paul Andersen explains how beats are created through interference of waves with similar frequencies. The changes in amplitude are caused by destructive and constructive interference. The frequency of beats is equal to the difference in frequency of the two waves.
Paul Andersen explains how graphs are used to visually display data that is collected in experimentation. He describes five main types of graphs; line graph, scatter plot, bar graph, histogram and pie chart. He describes the important elements of a successful graph including labeled axis, title, data and a line of fit.
Paul Andersen introduces the Punnett Square as a a powerful tool in genetic analysis. He tries to address major misconceptions that students have when use a Punnett Square. He gives a number of examples of monohybrid crosses and one example of a dihybrid cross.
Paul Andersen explains how the behavior of various organisms is shaped by natural selection. The action of phototropism and the timing of photoperiodism have both been shaped by the relative availability of light. Courtship in the bower bird determines the success of offspring.
Paul Andersen explains how Bernoulli's Equation describes the conservation of energy in a fluid. The equation describes the pressure energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy of a fluid at a single point. A sample problem illustrating the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure energy decreases.
Paul Andersen explains the importance of biodiversity. He starts by describing how biodiversity can be species, genetic or ecosystem diversity. He explains the importance of keystone species in an environment and gives two examples; the jaguar and the sea otter. He finishes with a quote from the father of biodiversity, E.O. Wilson.
Paul Andersen introduces the concept of bioenergetics. He explains how living organisms utilize free energy in the Universe. He begins with a brief discussion of thermodynamics and Gibbs free energy. He then explains how reactions can be exergonic or endergonic. He also introduces the concepts of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Paul Andersen explains how biogeochemical cycles move required nutrients through the abiotic and biotic spheres on our planet. Matter on the Earth is conserved so producers must receive required nutrients through the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, and sulfur cycle.
Paul Andersen explains how biogeochemical cycling is used to move nutrients from the environment into living material and back again. He explains the water cycle, the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle and the phosphorus cycle. He also explains the CHNOPS mnemonic device. He also explains why organisms need carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur.
Paul Andersen describes the four major biological molecules found in living things. He begins with a brief discussion of polymerization. Dehydration synthesis is used to connect monomers into polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down again. The major characteristics of nucleic acids are described as well as there directionality from 3' to 5' end.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the structure of a biomolecule fits the function of the biomolecule. For example and enzyme must interact correctly with a substrate to lower the activation energy, The covalent and non-covalent interactions are both important in shaping large molecules.
Paul Andersen introduces the topic of Biology. He covers each of the four main ideas that were developed by the College Board. These ideas revolve around the concepts of evolution, free energy, information and systems.
Paul Andersen differentiates between biotic and abiotic factors. He explains how both abiotic and biotic factors can affect organisms at the level of the cell, the population and even the ecosystem. The complexities of biofilms, predator-prey relationships, and food webs are given as illustrative examples.
Paul Andersen explains the importance of blood types in blood transfusions. He starts with a brief discussion of blood antigens and antibodies. He describes how the ABO differs from the Rh blood type. He shows you how to solve simple genetic problems using Punnett squares.
In this video Paul Andersen describes the major parts of an atom and explains how the Bohr Model more accurately represents the location of electrons around the nucleus. Niels Bohr refined the Rutherford model to account for spectra.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the bond length and bond energy are calculated using an energy distance graph. The strength of the bond is determined by the charges in the constituent atoms. As the charge increases the bond energy increases and the bond length decreases.
This video explains the structures and functions of seventeen major parts of the brain. He begins with a quick discussion of brain evolution and ends with a review of the major parts presented inside the brainstem, cerebellum, thalamus, and cerebrum.
Paul Andersen explains how you can use Coulomb's Law to determine the electric force between two charges. In Physics 1 students should be able to calculate the force between two charges and in Physics 2 students should be able to determine the force between up to four different charges.
Paul Andersen explains why astronauts are weightless. He also explains how Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation can be used to calculate the gravitational force between objects.
Paul Andersen describes the history of calorimetry and explains how it can be used to measure energy changes in a system. The specific heat of water is well established and so as a system releases or absorbs energy from a surrounding water bath it can be measured.
Paul Andersen answers the very simple question: What is cancer? He explains how damage to the DNA can create uncontrolled cell growth. He explains how malignant tumors can spread the disease throughout the body and gives possible treatments.
Paul Andersen begins by explaining the structure and purpose of carbohydrates. He describes and gives examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharide and polysaccharides. He explains how they grow through dehydration reactions and shrink through hydrolysis.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the three types of catalyst classes act to speed up reactions. Acid-base catalysts either add or remove a proton from one of the reactants. Surface catalysts provide active sites where reactants can adsorb and create more successful collision.
Paul Andersen explains how catalysts can speed up a reaction without being consumed in the reaction. Catalysts can lower the activation energy of reaction be stabilizing the transition state. They can also create new reaction pathways with new reaction intermediates that lower the overall activation energy.
Paul Andersen discusses cell communication. He begins by explaining how he communicates with other individuals using various forms of electronic communication. He them explains how cells communicate when the distance between them is big, small, and zero. He explains how antigen presenting cells pass information on antigen structure by touching in the immune response.
Paul Andersen explains how the cell cycle is used to create new cells. The creation of identical diploid daughter cells, through mitosis, is described. The creation of unique haploid daughter cells, through meiosis is also described.
Paul Andersen explains how cells duplicate through the process of cell division. Prokaryotic cells (like bacteria) duplicate through a process of binary fission. Eukaryotic cells (like you) duplicate body cells through mitosis and create sex cells through meiosis.
Paul Andersen gives you a brief introduction to the cell membrane. He starts by describing amphipathic nature of a phospholipid and how it assembles into a membrane. He gives an overview of the fluid mosaic model inside cells. He also discusses the movement of material across a membrane and the role of proteins in movement and function.