Paul Andersen details the first 7 of 13 labs in the AP Biology Curriculum. The following topics are all covered: Artificial Selection, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, Comparing DNA using BLAST, Diffusion and Osmosis, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Mitosis and Meiosis.
Paul Andersen explains the final 6 of 13 AP Biology Labs. The following topics are included: Transformation, Restriction Analysis of DNA, Energy Dynamics, Transpiration, Animal Behavior, and Enzyme Activity.
Mr. Andersen describes the two portions of the AP Biology Test. Tips for answering multiple choice and free response questions are included. Sample questions from old AP tests are also included.
Paul Andersen explains the structure, function and importance of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). He begins by describing the specific structure of the molecule and its three main parts: adenine, ribose sugar, and phosphate groups. He explains how energy can be stored in ATP and released through hydrolysis to ADP and Pi.
Abiogenesis Paul Andersen describes how life could have formed on our planet through natural processes. The progression from monomers, to polymers, to protocells and finally to cells is described. The Miller-Urey experiment is described in detail as well as characteristics of the latest universal ancestor
Paul Andersen explains how acid-base chemistry can be understood in terms of equilibrium. Water is present in all acid-base chemistry and is amphoteric in nature. The Ka and Kb values can be used to determine the strength of an acid or a base. Titrations can be used to student neutralization reactions between strong and weak acids and bases.
Paul Andersen explains pH as the power of hydrogen. He explains how increases in the hydronium ion (or hydrogen ion) concentration can lower the pH and create acids. He also explains how the reverse is true. An analysis of a strong acid and strong base is also included.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the activation energy is a measure of the amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to occur. Due to the collision theory the activation energy requires proper energy and orientation of the colliding molecules.
Paul Andersen explains important concepts that can not be explained by simple Mendelian genetics. He begins with a discussion of polygenic inheritance and uses a simulation on height to show how a bell shape curve of phenotypes is produced.
Paul Andersen explains the process of anaerobic respiration. This process involves glycolysis and fermentation and allows organisms to survive without oxygen. Lactic acid fermentation is used in animals and bacteria and uses lactate as an electron acceptor. Alcoholic fermentation used ethyl alcohol as an electron acceptor.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how scientists analyze data and evaluate evidence. He starts with a description of data and how it must be properly displayed. He then describes types of data in each of the four big ideas. He finally discusses a number of practice questions related to data analysis.
Paul Andersen introduces Anatomy and Physiology in this podcast. He starts by describing how the form of an object fits the function. He then explains the themes of homeostasis and hierarchy. He describes the four major types of tissues; epithelial, muscle, nervous and connective.
Paul Andersen explains rotating object have angular momentum. The angular momentum of a point object is the product of the distant from the center of rotation and the linear momentum. The angular momentum of an extended object is a product of the rotational inertia and the angular velocity.
Paul Andersen explains that the angular momentum of a system will be conserved as long as there is no net external torque. Both point objects and extended objects are covered along with several examples.
Paul Andersen explains how the angular momentum of a system can be calculated by determining the angular momentum of all individual objects within the system. An inquiry activity using a gyroscope is also included.
Paul Andersen steps you through eight types of animal behavior. He starts by defining ethology and explaining that behavior varies from innate to learned. He discusses each of the following with examples; instinct, fixed action pattern, imprinting, associative learning, trial and error learning, habituation, observational learning and insight.
Paul Andersen introduces the concept of ethology and contrasts kinesis and taxis. He explains the importance of courtship rituals in fruit flies. He finally shows you how to use a choice chamber to study behavior in pill bugs.
Paul Andersen briefly surveys members of the Domain Animalia. He begins with brief description of the phylogeny of animals. He then describes the characteristics of all animals, heterotrophy, multicellularity, motility and blastula. He describes eight invertebrates and vertebrates.
Paul Andersen explains how aposematic coloration (or warning coloration) is used for protection in the natural world. He explains how bright colors can be caused by either sexual selection or a warning coloration to predators. He also explains how organisms can use this coloration to mimic other organisms with a similar pattern.
Archaea In this video Paul Andersen describes the defining characteristics of members in the domain archaebacteria. He starts with a brief description of the phylogeny of this group. He then describes the major characteristics on an archaea, such as differences in the phospholipids.
Paul Andersen explains how the atmosphere surrounds the planet. The state of the atmosphere is climate and is affected by unequal heating, the Coriolis Effect, and the ocean. Convection cells and ENSO are discussed in detail.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the atomic model has changed over time. A model is simply a theoretical construct of phenomenon and so when we receive new data we may have to refine our model. Ionization energy data resulted in the formation of a quantum model that more accurately reflected the atom.
Paul Andersen explains how the structure of the nucleus influences the properties of the atom. The number of the protons determines the kind of element. Isotopes are formed when the number of protons remain the same but the neutrons are different. Some isotopes are radioactive and may decay over time. The rate of decay is the half-life and can be used to measure decay or time.
Paul Andersen explains how the average value of the electric field can be determined by dividing the potential difference by the displacement. Equipotential lines can be used to determine the potential in an electric field and the displacement can be measured.
Life oPaul Andersen describes the defining characteristics of the domain Eubacteria. He begins with a quick description of the phylogeny of bacteria and horizontal gene transfer. He then surveys the structures of a bacteria; nucleoid region, capsule, pilli, cell wall with peptidoglycan, flagella.
Paul Andersen explains how beats are created through interference of waves with similar frequencies. The changes in amplitude are caused by destructive and constructive interference. The frequency of beats is equal to the difference in frequency of the two waves.
Paul Andersen explains how graphs are used to visually display data that is collected in experimentation. He describes five main types of graphs; line graph, scatter plot, bar graph, histogram and pie chart. He describes the important elements of a successful graph including labeled axis, title, data and a line of fit.
Paul Andersen introduces the Punnett Square as a a powerful tool in genetic analysis. He tries to address major misconceptions that students have when use a Punnett Square. He gives a number of examples of monohybrid crosses and one example of a dihybrid cross.
Paul Andersen explains how the behavior of various organisms is shaped by natural selection. The action of phototropism and the timing of photoperiodism have both been shaped by the relative availability of light. Courtship in the bower bird determines the success of offspring.
Paul Andersen explains how Bernoulli's Equation describes the conservation of energy in a fluid. The equation describes the pressure energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy of a fluid at a single point. A sample problem illustrating the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure energy decreases.
Paul Andersen explains the importance of biodiversity. He starts by describing how biodiversity can be species, genetic or ecosystem diversity. He explains the importance of keystone species in an environment and gives two examples; the jaguar and the sea otter. He finishes with a quote from the father of biodiversity, E.O. Wilson.
Paul Andersen introduces the concept of bioenergetics. He explains how living organisms utilize free energy in the Universe. He begins with a brief discussion of thermodynamics and Gibbs free energy. He then explains how reactions can be exergonic or endergonic. He also introduces the concepts of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Paul Andersen explains how biogeochemical cycles move required nutrients through the abiotic and biotic spheres on our planet. Matter on the Earth is conserved so producers must receive required nutrients through the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, and sulfur cycle.
Paul Andersen explains how biogeochemical cycling is used to move nutrients from the environment into living material and back again. He explains the water cycle, the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle and the phosphorus cycle. He also explains the CHNOPS mnemonic device. He also explains why organisms need carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur.